Omics of Blood Pressure and Hypertension
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Essential hypertension is a common, complex disorder affecting ≤1 billion adults globally. Blood pressure is a highly heritable trait, with ≤50% of the variation between individuals accounted for by familial relationships. Despite this strong heritability, determining the genetic architecture of hypertension in humans has proved challenging. Recent technological and methodological developments have given rise to what is now known as omics—a domain of study that includes genomics, as well as epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. For complex traits like hypertension, which involve multiple pathways and organs, omic approaches offer the advantage of allowing identification of novel hypertensive mechanisms to help further dissect and characterize the disorder’s pathophysiology. This review provides a primer on the genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of blood pressure and hypertension. We provide an introduction to each approach with examples chosen to illustrate its potential. We conclude with a brief assessment of current methods aimed at integrating multiomic data. A review of the literature found genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic methods have been applied to dissect the pathophysiology of blood pressure and hypertension. Omic methods and integration of multiomic data represent a potentially fruitful approach to illuminating the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and, ultimately, may point to novel diagnostics and treatments.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.