Heme Oxygenase-1 in Macrophages Drives Septic Cardiac Dysfunction via Suppressing Lysosomal Degradation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase
Rationale: To date, our understanding of the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in inflammatory diseases has mostly been limited to its catalytic function and the potential for its heme-related catabolic products to suppress inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether and how HO-1 in macrophages plays a role in the development of septic cardiac dysfunction has never been explored.
Objective: Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-derived HO-1 in septic cardiac dysfunction.
Methods and Results: Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly activated HO-1 expression in cardiac infiltrated macrophages. Surprisingly, we found that myeloid conditional HO-1 deletion in mice evoked resistance to LPS-triggered septic cardiac dysfunction and lethality in vivo, which was accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the septic hearts and decreased peroxynitrite production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cardiac infiltrated macrophages, whereas proinflammatory cytokine production and macrophage infiltration were unaltered. We further demonstrated that HO-1 suppression abolished the LPS-induced iNOS protein rather than mRNA expression in macrophages. Moreover, we confirmed that the inhibition of HO-1 promoted iNOS degradation through a lysosomal rather than proteasomal pathway in macrophages. Suppression of the lysosomal degradation of iNOS by bafilomycin A1 drove septic cardiac dysfunction in myeloid HO-1-deficient mice. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that HO-1 interacted with iNOS at the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) domain, which further prevented iNOS conjugation with light chain 3 (LC3) and subsequent lysosomal degradation in macrophages. These effects were independent of HO-1's catabolic products: ferrous ion, carbon monoxide and bilirubin.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that HO-1 in macrophages drives septic cardiac dysfunction. The mechanistic insights provide potential therapeutic targets to treat septic cardiac dysfunction.
- heme oxygenase-1
- protein degradation
- cardiovascular research
- heart disease
- heart failure
- inducible nitric oxide synthase
- cardiac dysfunction
- Received February 14, 2018.
- Revision received April 2, 2018.
- Accepted April 17, 2018.