Table 7.

Methods for the Evaluation of Perfusion and Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis

Perfusion/Blood FlowAngiogenesis
SPECT imaging201Tl185
111In-RP748186
99mTc-sestamibi186
99mTc-NC100692187
99mTc-tetrofosmin147111In-VEGF121188
125I-c[RGD(I)yV]189
PET imaging15O-water19076Br-nanoprobe191
68Ga-NOTA-RGD192
13N-ammonia19364Cu-DOTA-CANF-comb194
64Cu-NOTA-TRC105195
64Cu-DOTA-VEGF121196
Ultrasound imagingMicrobubble contrast197Echistatin microbubble198
P-selectin microbubble197
VCAM-1 microbubble199
ICAM-1 microbubble200
MR imagingGd-DTPA201Integrin/nalectin-1202
RGD nanoparticle203
Optical imaging
IVM204
cNGR/CD13205
Laser Doppler206VCAM-1207
αvβ3208
VEGF209
Photoacoustic imagingOxygen saturation210αvβ3-GNBs211
  • ICAM-1 indicates intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1; IVM, in vivo microscopy; MR, magnetic resonance; PET, positron emission tomography; RGD, arginylglycylaspartic acid; SPECT, single-photon emission tomography; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.